Fulgurites are complex glassy structures formed when lightning strikes a surface and melts silica thereby fusing mineral grains. There are two basic types of fulgurites – sand fulgurites and rock fulgurites. A sand fulgurite is formed when lightning strikes a sandy surface and the energy imparted forms subsurface branching tubes of melted and partially melted sand grains. A rock fulgurite forms when lightning strikes solid rock and creates a superficial coating of glass (Lee, 1992). In the case of sand fulgurites, subsequent wind or water erosion often removes the surrounding sand or soil exposing the fulgurite.

The Bibliography of Fulgurites is a comprehensive list of scholarly articles, books, published reports, etc., primarily focused on the study of fulgurites. At this time the bibliography contains a total of 213 bibliographic citations, the oldest of which dates back to 1790.

As with most bibliographies, the Bibliography of Fulgurites has benefited from past work. Older bibliographies are especially important because they provide a record of early publications. The oldest bibliography incorporated into the Bibliography of Fulgurites was compiled by Merrill (1886). Citations have also been extracted from Knibbs et al. (1898), Barrows (1910), and McCollum & Welsh (1999).

Bibliographic citations have also been collected by searching databases and by extracting selected references cited in published papers. New citations are uniformly formatted and merged into a central database maintained at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service in Lubbock, Texas.



Abich, H. 1869. Die Fulguriten im Andesit des kleinen Ararat, nebst Bemerkungen über östliche Einflüsse bei der Bildung elektrischer Gewitter (On fulgurites in the andesite of the Lesser Ararat and on the influence of local agents on the production of thunderstorms). Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, Wien 60:153-161, http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/SBAWW_60_0153-0161.pdf (in German)
Abich, H. 1869. On fulgurites in the andesite of the Lesser Ararat and on the influence of local agents on the production of thunderstorms. Philosophical Magazine Series 4, 38(257):436-440, doi:10.1080/14786446908640251 (in English)
Anderson, A.E. 1925. Sand fulgurites from Nebraska, their structure and formative factors. Nebraska State Museum, Bulletin 7(1):49-86, First page only
Andersson, G. 1901. Ett exempel på blixten som geologisk factor (An example of lightning as a geological factor). Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 23(6):521-526, doi:10.1080/11035890109449919 (in Swedish)
Anonymous. 1814. On the vitreous tubes found near to Drigg, in Cumberland. Transactions of the Geological Society of London 2:528-532, doi:10.1144/transgsla.2.528 (keyword: fulgurite).
Anonymous. 1821. On tubes at Drigg. Transactions of the Geological Society of London 5:617-618, doi:10.1144/transgsla.5.595 (keyword: fulgurite).
Anonymous. 1844. Remarkable fulgurite. American Journal of Science and Arts 46(1):210-211.
Anonymous. 1880. Fulgurite. Annales des Mines, Série 7, 17:293, https://patrimoine.mines-paristech.fr/document/Annales_Mines_1880_S07_17 (in French)
Anonymous. 1897. What are fulgurites? Chambers’s Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art, 5th series, 14(681):48.
Anonymous. 1906. Fulgurites, or "lightning tubes". Queensland Government Mining Journal 7(79):631.
Anonymous. 1908. A rare collection of fulgurites. Princeton Alumni Weekly 9:152-153.
Anonymous. 1935. 23-foot "lightning stone" displayed at Chicago. The Science News-Letter 28(743):12-13. (keyword: fulgurite)
Anonymous. 1995. Fossil lightning. Discover Magazine 16(4). (Note: written by a staff writer) 
Appel, P.W.U., Abrahamsen, N. and Rasmussen, T.M. 2006. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland. Geological Magazine 143(5):737-741, doi:10.1017/S0016756806002391
Arago, D.F.J. 1821. Sur des Tubes vitreux qui paraissent produits par des coups de foudre (On the vitreous tubes that appear to be produced by lightning). Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Série 2, 19:290-303, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6571078m/f296 (in French)
Arai, B. 1968. The preliminary experiment of the artificial fulgurite. Yokohama National University, Departmental Bulletin Paper, pp. 18-24.
Aston, E. and Bonney, T.G. 1896. On an alpine nickel-bearing serpentine with fulgurites. The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 52(1-4):452-460, doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1896.052.01-04.24
Baker, G. and Gaskin, A.J. 1946. Natural glass from Macedon, Victoria and its relationships to other natural glasses. Journal of Geology 54(2):88-104, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30060477
Barbour, E.H. 1925. Notes on Nebraska fulgurites. Nebraska State Museum, Bulletin 6(1):45-48, First page only
Barnett, V.H. 1908. An example of disruption of rock by lightning on one of the Lucite Hills in Wyoming. Journal of Geology 16(6):568-571, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30061342 (Note: author states that no fulgurites were found at site)
Barrows, W.L. 1910. A fulgurite from the Raritan Sands of New Jersey, with an historical sketch and bibliography of fulgurites in general. School of Mines Quarterly (Columbia University) 31(4):294-319, https://archive.org/stream/schoolminesquar52chemgoog#page/n336
Bayley, W.S. 1892. A fulgurite from Waterville, Maine. American Journal of Science, 3rd Series, 43(256):327-328, doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-43.256.327
Beasley, A.W. 1964. A fulgurite from Karnak, western Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, 26:11-19, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/120445#page/13
Berg, H. 1905. Blitzröhrenfund in Krummendorf bei Rostock (A fulgurite find at Krummendorf by Rostock). Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg 59:214-217, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/95061#page/236 (in German)
Berthier. 1843. Examen d'un échantillon de sable recueilli par M. Fiedler, autour du fulgurite de Dresde (Examination of a sample of sand submitted by M. Fiedler, from a fulgurite of Dresden). Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 17:598-599, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k2976b/f602 (in French)
Beudant, F.S., Hachette, S. and Savart. 1828. Expérience sur la Formation des Tubes fulminaires (Experiment on the formation of the fulminous tubes). Annales de Chimie et de Physique, Série 2, 37:319-321, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k6569246j/f329 (in French) (also in Annalen der Physique 89:117-118) (keyword: fulgurite)
Block, K. 2010. Fulgurite classification, petrology, and implications for planetary processes. Master's thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, 68 pp, http://search.proquest.com/docview/874626502
Bonney, T.G. 1899. Fulgurites from Tupungato and the summit of Aconcagua. Geological Magazine 6(1):1-4, doi:10.1017/S001675680014186X
Böttiger. 1822. Einiges aus dem Alterthume über die Blitzröhren (Some from the Altithermal period and more on the lightning tubes). Annalen der Physik 72(11):317-322, doi:10.1002/andp.18220721111 (in German)
Bouska, V. and Feldman, V.I. 1994. Terrestrial and lunar, volcanic and impact glasses, tektites, and fulgurites. In: Marfunin, A.S. (ed), Composition, structure, and properties of mineral matter; concept, results, and problems. Advanced Mineralogy 1:258-266, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-78523-8
Brandstätter, F., Seemann, R., Hammer, V.M.F., Berger, A., Koller, F. and Stehlik, H. 2009. Über den Fund eines ungewöhnlichen “Fulgurit”- Objekts bei Kaltenbach, Gemeinde Vitis, Niederösterreich, Österreich (On the find of an unusual “Fulgurite” object near Kaltenbach, Gemeinde Vitis, Lower Austria). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien A 110:1-16, http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/ANNA_110A_0001-0016.pdf (in German)
Brückmann, U.F.B. 1806. Von dem sogenannten Blitzstein oder Pierre foudroyée am Mt. Blanc (Of the so-called lightning stone or stone struck-down near Mont Blanc). Magazin für den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde mit Rücksicht auf die dazugehörigen Hülfswissenschaften herausgegeben von J. H. Voigt 11:67-68, http://zs.thulb.uni-jena.de/receive/jportal_jparticle_00158918 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Brückmann, U.F.B. 1806. Von den sogenannten Blitzröhren aus der Sennerheyde im Lippeschen (On the so-called lightning tubes of Sennerheyde in Lippe). Magazin für den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde mit Rücksicht auf die dazugehörigen Hülfswissenschaften herausgegeben von J. H. Voigt 11:64-67, http://zs.thulb.uni-jena.de/receive/jportal_jparticle_00158893 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Brun, A. 1884. Note sur quelques fulgurites observées dans les hautes Alpes (Note on some fulgurites observed in the high Alps). Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles. Bibliothèque Universelle, Genève, 3e période, 12:610-615, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k299082j/f613 (in French)
Brun, J. 1880. Pierres Cassées du Sahara: Fulgurites Calcaires. Eau Rouge du Lac de Neuchâtel (Broken stones of the Sahara: limestone fulgurites. Red water of Neuchâtel Lake). Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles. Bibliothèque Universelle, Genève, 3e période, 3:329-336, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k299073k/f331 (in French)
Butcher, D.D. 1907. Experiments on artificial fulgurites. Proceedings of the Physical Society of London 21(1):254-260, doi:10.1088/1478-7814/21/1/315
Can, M. 1992. The formation of artificial fulgurites by electrical discharge compaction process. Doğa. Türk Mühendislik ve Çevre Bilimleri Dergisi (Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences) 16, Sayı 3. (in Turkish)
Carion, A. 2007. Fulgurites et verres naturels: pierres de foudre, de feu et de choc (Fulgurites and natural glass: stones of lightning, fire and shock). Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux condensés (IMPMC), Paris, 33 pp. (in French)
Carité, D. 1987. Fulgurites en Mauritanie (Fulgurites in Mauritania). Minéraux et Fossiles, le Guide du Collectionneur 147:6-14. (in French)
Carter, E.A., Hargreaves, M.D., Kee, T.P., Pasek, M.A. and Edwards, H.G.M. 2010. A Raman spectroscopic study of a fulgurite. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A 368:3087-3097, doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0022
Carter, E.A., Pasek, M.A., Smith, T., Kee, T.P., Hines, P. and Edwards, H.G.M. 2010. Rapid Raman mapping of a fulgurite. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 397(7):2647-2658, doi:10.1007/s00216-010-3593-z
Chapman, K.A. 2013. Textural and chemical analyses of linear and exogenic fulgurites. Bachelor's thesis, Whitman College, 34 pp.
Clocchiatti, R. 1990. Les fulgurites et roches vitrifiées de l'Etna (Fulgurites and vitreous rocks of Mount Etna). European Journal of Mineralogy 2(4):479-494, doi:10.1127/ejm/2/4/0479 (in French)
Colton, F.B. 1950. Lightning in action. The National Geographic Magazine 97(6):809-828. (Note: photos and discussion of fulgurites)
Connah, T.H. 1947. A fulgurite from Moreton Island. Queensland Government Mining Journal 48(543):20.
Cook, H.J. 1925. Manganese fulgurites. Nebraska State Museum, Bulletin 5(1):41-44, First page only
Daly, T.K., Buseck, P.R., Williams, P. and Lewis, C.F. 1993. Fullerenes from a fulgurite. Science 259(5101):1599-1601, doi:10.1126/science.259.5101.1599
Dartevelle, E. 1942. Fulgurites du Congo (Fulgurites of Congo). Bulletin de la Société belge de géologie, de paléontologie et d'hydrologie (Bulletin van de Belgische Vereniging voor Geologie) 50:91-95. (in French)
Darwin, C. 1895. Fulgurites from Maldonado, South America. Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Appleton, pp. 59-62.
Delesse and de Lapparent. 1875. Fulgurite. Annales des Mines, Série 7, 8:700-702, https://patrimoine.mines-paristech.fr/document/Annales_Mines_1875_S07_08 (in French)
Desio, A. 1950-1951. Sur les "fulgurites" du Sahara (On fulgurites of the Sahara). Bulletin de l'Institut d'Egypte 33:391-395. (in French) (Note: reprinted in full in Pubblicazione de la Instituto di Geologia, Paleontologia e Geografia Fizica della Universita di Milano Serie P. 68 pp.)
Desvaux, N.A. 1831. Des stalactites souterraines ou prétendues fulgurites (Underground stalactites called fulgurites). Mémoires de la Société d'Agriculture d'Angers 1:109-121. (in French)
Deville, J. 1999. Les fulgurites (Fulgurites). Mineraux et Fossiles, le Guide du Collectionneur 25(279):5-13. (in French)
Diller, J.S. 1884. Fulgurite from Mount Thielsen, Oregon. American Journal of Science, 3rd Series, 28(166):252-253, doi:10.2475/ajs.s3-28.166.252
Diller, J.S. 1884. Fulgurite from Oregon. Science 3(71):735-736, doi:10.1126/science.ns-3.71.735
Diller, J.S. 1899. Stalactites of sand. Science 9(219):371-372, doi:10.1126/science.9.219.371
Duerr, C.D. 1996. The nature and form of fulgurites with special emphasis on rock and soil fulgurites from Alta, Utah. Bachelor's thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 154 pp.
Durgun, H. and Karamanderesi, I.H. 1985. Fulgurite at the Mezargedigi area Izmir-Selcuk-Camlik village, Turkey. Bulletin, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey 103-104:36-40, http://www.mta.gov.tr/v2.0/eng/dergi_pdf/103-104/4.pdf (in English)
Elkamp, H. 1976. "Blitzröhren": Bildung von Sand- und Felsfulguriten ("Lightning tubes": formation of sand- and rock-fulgurites). Der Aufschluss 27(6):225-227. (in German)
Ende, M., Schorr, S., Kloess, G., Franz, A. and Tovar M.  2012. Shocked quartz in Sahara fulgurite. European Journal of Mineralogy 24(3):499-507, doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2012/0024-2188
Essene, E.J. and Fisher, D.C. 1986. Lightning strike fusion: extreme reduction and metal-silicate liquid immiscibility. Science 234(4773):189-193, doi:10.1126/science.234.4773.189 (Note: Fulgurite formed on a morainal ridge in Michigan)
Feldman, V. 1987. Comparitive characteristics in impactite, tektite and fulgurite glasses. In: Konta, J. (ed), International Conference on Natural Glasses, Charles Universitha, Prague, pp. 215-220.
Fenner, C. 1949. Sand tube fulgurites and their bearing on the tektite problem. Records of the South Australian Museum 9:127-142, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/127415#page/141
Fernandez, J., Barbosa, C. and Rial, G.E. 1985. Fulguritas de la Puna de Jujuy, Argentina (Fulgurites of the elevated plains of Jujuy, Argentina). Revista de la Asociación Argentina de Mineralogía, Petrología y Sedimentología 16(1-4):35-42. (in Spanish)
Fiedler, K.G. 1817. Ueber die Blitzröhren und ihre Entstehung (On the lightning tubes and their formation). Annalen der Physik 55(2):121-164, doi:10.1002/andp.18170550202 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Fiedler, K.G. 1819. Ueber die Blitzröhren und ihre Entstehung (Eine Nachtrag) (On the lightning tubes and their formation, Supplement). Annalen der Physik 61(3):235-248, doi:10.1002/andp.18190610304 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Fiedler, K.G. 1821. Neuer Fundort der Blitzröhren (New discovered sites of lighting tubes). Annalen der Physik 68(6):209-211, doi:10.1002/andp.18210680608 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Fiedler, K.G. 1822. Auffindung und Ausgrabung einer 8 Leipz. Ellen 5¾ Zoll langen Blitzröhre bei Dresden (Discovery and excavation of a 8 Leipz. Ellen 5¾ inches long ligtning tube in Dresden). Annalen der Physik 71(7):301-312, doi:10.1002/andp.18220710708 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Fiedler, K.G. 1823. Auffindung und Ausgrabung einer Blitzröhre im Königreiche Ungarn, bis an ihr Ende (Location and excavation of a lightning tube in the Kingdom of Hungary, to their end). Annalen der Physik 74(6):213-217, doi:10.1002/andp.18230740604 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Fiedler, K.G. 1843. Fulgurite found in a Vineyard near Dresden. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 17(7):216-217, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k2976b/f220 (in French)
Fischer, W. 1928. Blitzröhren aus de miocänen Glasssanden von Guteborn bei Ruhland, Ober Lausitz (Lightning tubes out of Miocene glass sands of Guteborn near Ruhland, upper Lausitz). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Beilage-Band, Abteilung A, 56:92-98. (in German) (keyword: sand fulgurite)
Franz, H. 1946. Fulgurites in Michigan. Rocks and Minerals 21(6):345-355.
Fredholm, K.A. 1902. Också ett excmpel på blixten som geologisk factor (Another example of lightning as a geological factor). Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 24(4):283-284, doi:10.1080/11035890209449954 (in Swedish)
Frenzel, G. and Otterman, J. 1978. Blitzglas vom Katzenbuckel, Odenvald, und ihre Ahnlichkett mit Tektiten (Fulgurites of Katzenbuckel, Odenvald, and their similarity to Tektites). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, pp. 439-446. (in German)
Frenzel, G. and Stahle, V. 1982. Blitzglas am Feridotit vam Frankenstein bei Darmstadt (Fulgurites at Feridotit of Frankenstein near Darmstadt). Chemie der Erde 41(2):111-119. (in German)
Frenzel, G. and Stahle, V. 1984. Über Alumosil mit Lechaterdierit-Einschlussen von einer Fulguritrohre des Hahnenstockes (On Alumosil with Lechaterdierit-Einschlussen with a fulgurite stone of Hahnenstockes). Chemie der Erde 43(1):17-26. (in German)
Frenzel, G. Irouschek-Zumthor, A. and Stahle, V. 1989. Stoßwellenmetamorphose, Aufschmelzung und Verdampfung bei Fulguritbildung an exponierten Berggipfeln (Impact metamorphosis, melting and evaporation with fulgurite formation at exposed mountain summits). Chemie der Erde 49(4):265-286. (in German)
Gailliot, M.P. 1980. "Petrified lightning": a discussion of sand fulgurites. Rocks and Minerals 55(1):13-17.
García-Guinea, J., Fueio, M., Fernández-Hernan, M., Bustillo, M.A., Crespo-Feo, E., Correcher, V., SánchezMuñoz, L. and Matesanz, E. 2009. The quartzofeldspathic fulgurite of Bustarviejo (Madrid): glassy matrix and silicon phases. In: Micro‐Raman Spectroscopy and Luminescence Studies in the Earth and Planetary Sciences: Proceedings of the International Conference Spectroscopy 2009, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1163:128-134, doi:10.1063/1.3222878 (in English?)
Gary, C. 1989. La Foudre (The lightning). La Recherche - l'actualité des sciences 20:722-734.
Geinitz, E.H. 1893. Über eine Blitzröhre aus der Ribnitzen Heide (On a fulgurite from Ribtitz Heath). Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg 47:60-67. (in German)
Geinitz, E.H. 1902. Blitzröhren von Liessow und Goldberg (Fulgurites from Liessow und Goldberg). Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg 56:188-192, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/96532#page/212 (in German)
Genareau, K., Wardman, J.B., Wilson T.M., McNutt S.R. and Izbekov P. 2015. Lightning-induced volcanic spherules. Geology doi:10.1130/G36255.1
George, W.O. 1924. The relation of the physical properties of natural glasses to their chemical compositions. Journal of Geology 32(5):353-372, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30058495
Gifford, A.C. 1999. Clay soil fulgurites in the eastern goldfields of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 82(4):165-168, http://www.rswa.org.au/publications/Journal/82(4)/82(4)gifford.pdf
Gilbert, L.W. 1819. Nachtrag zu dem Aufsatze von den Blitzröhren Seite 262 (A supplement to the essay on lightning tubes). Annalen der Physik 61(3):315-316, doi:10.1002/andp.18190610309 (in German) (Note: fulgurite)
Gilbert, L.W. 1819. Noch einiges von den Blitzröhren (Something more on lightning tubes). Annalen der Physik 61(3):249-262, doi:10.1002/andp.18190610305 (in German) (Note: fulgurite)
Gilbert, L.W. 1822. Noch einiges von Blitzröhren und von Wirkungen des Blitzes auf Felsenstücke (More on lightning tubes and on the effects of lightning on Felsenstüke). Annalen der Physik 71(8):337-344, doi:10.1002/andp.18220710802 (in German) (Note: fulgurite)
Glover, J.E. 1978. New data on the origin and distribution of Western Australian sand fulgurites. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 60(3):91-96.
Glover, J.E. 1979. Formation and distribution of sand fulgurites. Australian Geographer 14(3):172-175, doi:10.1080/00049187908702758
Goedeke, D. and Techmer, K. 1987. Partial melting in fulgurites from Little Ararat (Turkey) and Dissistock (Swiss Alps). In: Uman, M.A. (ed), International Geophysics Series 39.
Gonchar, A.D. and Chinikulov, Kh. 1989. Pervyye dannyye o ful'guritakh Uzbekistana (First data on fulgurite in Uzbekistan). Zapiski Uzbekistanskogo Otdeleniya Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 42:36-38. (in Russian)
Gourdon, M. 1895-1896. Fulgurites. La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes 26(303):57; (304):81 http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/137486#page/113 (Note: page 57 contains only a one sentence question)
Gowda, C.M.J. and Sudheendra, K. B.M. 2005. Report of fulgurite from Talagavadi, Malavalli Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka. Journal of the Geological Society of India 65(1):105-106.
Grapes, R. 2006. Pyrometamorphism. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 287 pp. (Note: discusses fulgurites produced by lightning strike pyrometamorphism, pp. 28-31)
Green, A.H. 1866. Fulgurite at Macclesfield, England. Geological Survey of Great Britain, Memoir to accompany sheets 81 N.W. and 81 S.W., pp. 76-77.
Gümbel. 1882. Ueber die Bildung der Stylolithen und über Fulgurite (On the formation of stylolites and the fulgurite). Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 34:647-648, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/148378#page/671 (in German)
Gümbel. 1884. Ueber Fulgurite (On fulgurite). Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 36:179-180, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/148362#page/191 (in German)
Hacquaert, A. 1939. Een fulguriet uit de Limburgsche Kempen (A fulgurite from Limburgse Kempen). Natuurwetenschappelijk Tijdschrift (1):3-6. (in Dutch)
Hagen. 1823. Bericht von der Bildung einer Blitzröhre durch den Blitz, am 14ten Juli 1823, zu Rauschen in Ostpreussen (Report of the formation of a lightning tube by lightning on the 14th of July 1823, with noise in East Prussia). Annalen der Physik 74(7):325-330, doi:10.1002/andp.18230740711 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Hallock, W. 1901. Peculiar effects due to a lightning discharge on Lake Champlain in August 1900. Journal of Geology 9(8):671-672, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30061409 (keyword: fulgurites)
Harland, W.B. 1978. Fulgurites. In: Fairbridge, R.W. and Bourgeois, J. (eds), Encyclopedia of sedimentology, Stroudsberg: Dowden, pp. 144-145.
Harland, W.B. and Hacker, J.L.F. 1966. "Fossil" lightning strikes 250 million years ago. The Advancement of Science 22:663-671.
Harting, P. 1874. Notice sur un cas de formation de fulgurites et sur la présence d'autres fulgurites dans le sol de la Néerlande (Note on a case of formation of fulgurites and on the presence of other fulgurites in the soil of the Netherlands). Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam 14, 22 pp, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/84771#page/231 (in French)
Hill, J. 1945. Nags Head and fulgurite. Rocks and Minerals 20(11):523-525. (Note: fulgurites in North Carolina coastal dunes)
Hill, J. 1947. Something new in fulgurites. Rocks and Minerals 22(10):923.
Hill, R.D. 1968. Analysis of irregular paths of lightning channels. Journal of Geophysical Research 73(6):1897-1906, doi:10.1029/JB073i006p01897
Hills, R.C. 1891. Fulgurite from the Spanish Peaks. Proceedings, Colorado Scientific Society 3:280-287.
Hitchcock, E. 1861. Fulgurites or lighting tubes. The American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd Series, 31(92):302.
Hobbs, W.H. 1899. A spiral fulgurite from Wisconsin. American Journal of Science, 4th Series, 8(43):17-20, doi:10.2475/ajs.s4-8.43.17
Hubbard, D.A. Jr. and Lovett, J.A. 2000. Lightning creates a Virginia fulgurite. Virginia Minerals 46(4):33-34, http://www.dmme.virginia.gov/commercedocs/VM%2046_4.pdf
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Julien, A.A. 1901. A study of the structure of fulgurites. The Journal of Geology 9(8):673-693, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30061410
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Kumazaki, K. and Suzuki, S. 1968. Artificial formation of fulgurite. Chishitsugaku Zasshi (Journal of the Geological Society of Japan) 74(2):134-135. (in Japanese)
Kumazaki, K., Nakamura, K., Naito, K. and Horii, K. 1993. Fulgurite and its artificial production in laboratory. In: 8th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering Proceedings in Yokohams, Japan, v.3, 23-27 August 1993.
Lacroix, A. 1915. La silice fondue considérée comme minéral (lechateliérite) (Molten silica considered like mineral, Lechatelierite). Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 38:182-186, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k109014h/f198 (in French)
Lacroix, A. 1915. Sur les fulgurites exclusivement siliceuses du Sahara oriental et sur quelques fulgurites silicatées des Pyrénées (On siliceous fulgurites of eastern Sahara and on some silicate fulgurites of the Pyrenees). Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 38:188-189, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k109014h/f204 (in French)
Lacroix, A. 1931. Nouvelles observations sur les fulgurites exclusivement siliceuses du Sahara (New observations on exclusively siliceous fulgurites of the Sahara). Bulletin de la Société française de minéralogie 54:75-79, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1090257/f100 (in French)
Lacroix, A. 1936. Les fulgurites du Sahara (Fulgurites of the Sahara). Extrait de les Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences coloniales 25:9-yy. (in French)
Lacroix, A. 1942. Nouvelles observations sur les fulgurites du Sahara (New observations on the fulgurites of the Sahara). Bulletin du Service des Mines de l'Afrique occidental français 6:23-48. (in French)
Lee, R.A. 1992. Fulgurites: “paleo-lightning” remnants. Thesis for Meteorology 4990, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Leeds, A.R.1874. (On a fulgurite found near Fayetteville, North Carolina). Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1874, Part II, 26:145, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/84867#page/153
Leithäuser, R. 1953. Photometrie von Blitzröhren für photographische Zwecke (Photometry of lightning tubes for photographic purposes). Thesis, Technische Universität Berlin, 47 pp. (in German)
Lewis, A.D. 1936. Fulgurites from Witsands on the south-eastern borders of the Kalahari. South African Geographical Journal 19(1):50-57, doi:10.1080/03736245.1936.10559176 (in English)
Libby, C.A. 1986. Fulgurite in the Sierra Nevada. California Geology 39(11):262.
Libby, C.A. 1988. Fulgurite in the Sierra Nevada: an update. California Geology 41(6):139-140.
Longinelli, A., Serra, R., Sighinolfi, G., Selmo, E. and Sgavetti, M. 2012. Oxygen isotopic composition of fulgurites from the Egyptian Sahara and other locations. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26(17):1980-1984, doi:10.1002/rcm.6315
Lowry, J.F. 1975. Artificial fulgurites. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 12(5-6):157-158.
Lozano Fernández, R.P., González Laguna, R. and Martín Crespo, T. 2007. Descripción Macroscópica de la Fulgurita de Torre de Moncorvo (Portugal) (Macroscopic description of the fulgurite from Torre de Moncorvo, Portugal). Geogaceta 42:139-142, http://www.sociedadgeologica.es/archivos/geogacetas/Geo42/Art35.pdf (in Spanish)
Macías, J.D. 2010. Fulguritas: observaciones sobre el rayo petrificado (Fulgurites: observations on the petrified ray). Enseñanza de las Ciencias de la Tierra (Revista de la Asociación Española) 18(3):298-309, http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=4043446 (in Spanish with English abstract)
Martín Crespo, T., Lozano Fernandez, R.P. and Gonzalez Laguna, R. 2009. The fulgurite of Torre de Moncorvo (Portugal): description and analysis of the glass. European Journal of Mineralogy 21(4):783-794, doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2009/0021-1948
Martinez‐Ramirez, S., Diaz, L., Camacho, J.J. and Viehland, D. 2013. CW CO2‐laser-induced formation of fulgurite on lime–Pozzolan mortar. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 96(9):2824-2830, doi:10.1111/jace.12515
Masters, M. Production of fulgurites in the earth using triggered lightning. University of Florida, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering.
Matty, J.M. 1999. Geo-Currents: A look at recent geological news, exotic glasses. Rocks and Minerals 74(3):154-155, doi:10.1080/00357529909602533 (Note: discusses fulgurites)
McCollum, A. and Welsh, K. 1999. Bibliography: Selected Writings on Lightning and Fulgurites. Museum of Science and Industry, Tampa, Florida, 24 pp. http://www.usfcam.usf.edu/CAM/exhibitions/1998_12_McCollum/supplemental_didactics/60.Bibliography.pdf
Merrill, G.P. 1886. On fulgurites. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 9:83-91, doi:10.5479/si.00963801.9-554.83
Merrill, G.P. 1887. Fulgurites, or lightning-holes. The Popular Science Monthly 30:529-539, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Popular_Science_Monthly_Volume_30.djvu/549
Mohling, J.W. 2004. Exogenic fulgurites from Elko County, Nevada: a new class of fulgurite associated with large soil-gravel fulgurite tubes. Rocks and Minerals 79(5):334-340, doi:10.1080/00357529.2004.9925733
Moller, B. 1973. The fascinating fulgurites of Imperial Valley. Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, July 1973.
Montigny, C. 1883. Notice sur un Fulgurite; par M. D. van Bastelaer. Bulletins de l'Académie royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique, 3e Série, 6:129-130, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/110000#page/134 (in French)
Myers, W.M. and Peck, A.B. 1925. A fulgurite from Amboy, New Jersey. American Mineralogist 10(6):152-155, http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM10/AM10_152.pdf
Navarro-González, R., Mahan, S.A., Singhvi, A.K., Navarro-Aceves, R., Rajot, J.-L., McKay, C.P., Coll, P. and Raulin, F. 2007. Paleoecology reconstruction from trapped gases in a fulgurite from the late Pleistocene of the Libyan Desert. Geology 35(2):171-174, doi:10.1130/g23246a.1
Norin, J. 1986. Geomorphological effects on lightning. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 30:141-150. (in English?)
Ortíz Hernández, L.E. and Hernández Pérez, I. 1996. Pseudofulgurita el Rosario: Un agregado vítreo exótico en el Estado de Hidalgo (El Rosario pseudo-fulgurite: An exotic vitreous aggregate in the State of Hidalgo). Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana 52(3-4):43-51, http://boletinsgm.igeolcu.unam.mx/bsgm/vols/epoca03/5203/ortiz-hdz..pdf (in Spanish) (Note: El Rosario pseudo-fulgurite was produced when a broken high-power line fell to the ground)
Pasek, M. and Block, K. 2009. Lightning-induced reduction of phosphorus oxidation state. Nature Geoscience 2(8):553-556, doi:10.1038/ngeo580
Pasek, M.A., Block, K. and Pasek, V. 2012. Fulgurite morphology: a classification scheme and clues to formation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 164(3):477-492, doi:10.1007/s00410-012-0753-5
Pavlov, G.F., Plyashkevich, A.A. and Savva, N.Y. 1986. Kolymskiy ful'gurit (Kolyma fulgurite). Priroda (Akademii Nauk SSSR) (12):42-43. (in Russian)
Perkins, S. 2007. Stroke of good fortune: a wealth of data from petrified lightning. Science News 171(Feb. 17):101, http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20070217/fob5.asp
Petty, J.J. 1936. The origin and occurrence of fulgurites in the Atlantic coastal plain. American Journal of Science, 5th Series, 31(183):188-201, doi:10.2475/ajs.s5-31.183.188
Pfaff, C.H. 1822. Beobachtete Entstehung einer Blitzröhre durch den Blitz (Observed formation of fulgurites by lightning). Annalen der Physik 72(9):111, doi:10.1002/andp.18220720912 (in German)
Piper, D.J.W. 1970. Eolian sediments in the basal New Red Sandstone of Arran. Scottish Journal of Geology 6(3):295-308, doi:10.1144/sjg06030295 (Note: discusses fulgurites in aeolian sediements)
Planeth, H. 1879. Einein Mecklenburg gefundene Blitzröhre (A fulgurite found in Mecklenburg). Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg 33:307-311, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/87638#page/315 (in German)
Poggendorf, J.C. 1827. Auffindung von Blitzröhren in der Afrikanischen Wüste (Location of lightning tubes in the African Desert). Annalen der Physik 86(3):483-486, doi:10.1002/andp.18270860310 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Purdom, W.B. 1966. Fulgurites from Mount Thielsen, Oregon. The Ore Bin 28(9):153-159.
Pye, K. 1982. SEM observations on some sand fulgurites from northern Australia. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 52(3):991-998, doi:10.1306/212F80A8-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D
Raeside, J.D. 1968. A note on artificial fulgurites from a soil in South East Otago. New Zealand Journal of Science 11(1):72-76.
Rakov, V.A. 1999. Lightning makes glass. Journal of the Glass Art Society, pp. 45-50.
Reed, J.J. 1989. The nature and composition of pseudo-fulgurite tubes discovered in sand dunes near Levin. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 32(4):1-7. 
Reed, M.N. 1958. Fulgurites while you wait. Gems and Minerals. October.
Reyes Salas, A., Ortega Gutiérrez, F., Macías, C., Girón, P., Cervantes, K., Carcía, J., Flores, D. and Linares, C. 2006. Fulgurita de Zacatecas: un estudio petrográfico, geoquímico y mineralógico. Sociedad Mexicana de Mineralogía, Boletín de Mineralogía 17:67-73. (in Spanish)
Ribbentrop, H.G. 1830. Ueber die Blitzröhren oder Fulguriten, und besonders über das Vorkommen derselben am Regensteine bei Blankenburg (On the lightning tubes or fulgurites, and particularly on the occurrence of the same with hail near Blankenburg). Braunschweig: Vieweg, 46 pp. (in German)
Richardson, J.E. 1896-1897. Fulgurites. The Mineral Collector 3:131-135; 145-151; 161-166.
Richardson, J.E. 1897. On fulgurites from New Jersey. The Mineral Collector 4:19.
Riley, C.M. 1959. An iron fulgurite from Nebraska. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 4(5):82-88. Scanned pdf
Roemer, F. 1876. Über ein Vorkommen von Blitzröhren oder Fulguriten bei Starczynow unweit Olkusz im Königreich Polen (On an occurrence of lightning tubes or fulgurites at Starcczynow Olkusz in the Kingdom of Poland). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, pp. 33-40. (in German)
Rogers, A.F. 1946. Sand fulgurites with enclosed Lechatelierite from Riverside County, California. The Journal of Geology 54(2):117-122, http://www.jstor.org/stable/30060479
Rollman, W. 1868. Ueber die künstliche Herstellung von Blitzröhren (On the artificial production of furgulites). Annalen der Physik 210(8):605-615, doi:10.1002/andp.18682100811 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Rose, G. 1873. Exhibition of rock fulgurite from Ararat and Mexico. In: Protokoll der November Sitzung, Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 25:112-113, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/148370#page/144 (in German)
Rutley, F. 1885. On Fulgurite from Mt. Blanc. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 41(2):152-154, doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1885.041.01-04.21
Rutley, F. 1889. On fulgurites from Monte Viso. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 45(1-4):60-66, doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1889.045.01-04.05
Rutley, F. 1894. On fulgurites from Griqualand West. The Mineralological Magazine and Journal of the Mineralogical Society 10(48):280-284, doi:10.1180/minmag.1894.010.48.04
Saikia, B.J., Parthasarathy, G., Sarmah, N.C. and Baruah, G.D. 2008. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of naturally occurring glassy fulgurites. Bulletin of Materials Science 31(2):155-158, doi:10.1007/s12034-008-0027-z
Sainter. 1865. Fulgurite from Macclesfield, England. Geological Magazine 2(14):368, doi:10.1017/S0016756800470536
Schnitzer, W.A. 1968. Fulgurite und Pseudofulgurite aus Franken (Fulgurites and pseudofulgurites from Franconia). Geologische Blätter für Nordost-Bayern und angrenzende Gebiete18(1):34-45. (in German)
Scholz, C. 1873. Zur Kenntniss der Fulgurite (On understanding fulgurites). Archiv der Pharmacie 203:541-543, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/98127#page/555 (in German) (also in: Polytechnisches Journal 211:408 (in German); and Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1874, p. 408. (in English)
Sheffer, A.A. 2007. Chemical reduction of silicates by meteorite impacts and lightning strikes. Doctoral thesis, University of Arizona, 245 pp, http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/~abigailw/thesis/AASDissertation.pdf
Sheffer, A.A. and Jarnot, B.M. 2004. Reduced silicon, iron, and other unusual species identified in a fulgurite from Farmington, Connecticut. Rocks and Minerals 79(5):345, doi:10.1080/00357529.2004.9925734
Shipton, W.D. 1916. A note on fulgurites from Sparta, Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science for 1916 23:141, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/35074#page/145
Sponholz, B. 1993. Holocene fulgurite formation in the southern central Sahara (Niger). In: Thorweihe, U. and Schandelmeier, H. (eds), Geoscientific research in Northeast Africa, proceedings of the international conference, Balkema. Rotterdam, pp. 649-650. 
Sponholz, B. 2004. Fulgurites as palaeoclimatic indicators - the proof of fulgurite fragments in sand samples. In: Smykatz-Kloss, W. and Felix-Henningsen, P. (eds), Palaeoecology of Quaternary drylands. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 102, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 73-78.
Sponholz, B., Baumhauer, R. and Felix-Henningsen, P. 1993. Fulgurites in the southern central Sahara, Republic of Niger and their palaeoenvironmental significance. The Holocene 3(2):97-104, doi:10.1177/095968369300300201
Sponhulz, B. 2009. New discovery of rock fulgurites in the Central Sahara. Chapter 7. In: Baumhauer, R. and Runge, J. (eds), Holocene Palaeoenvironmental History of the Central Sahara. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Palaeoecology of Africa 29, pp. 127-136.
Swann, C.T. and Ingram, S.L. Sr. 1998. A note on the discovery of sand fulgurites in Mississippi. Mississippi Geology 19(1):1-5, http://www.deq.state.ms.us/mdeq.nsf/pdf/Geology_Volume019Number1March1998/$File/Vol_19_1.pdf
Switzer, G.S. and Melson, W.G. 1972. Origin and composition of rock fulgurite glass. In: Melson, W.G. (ed), Mineral Sciences Investigations 1969-1971, Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, no. 9, pp. 47-51, doi:10.5479/si.00810274.9.1
Thalheim, K. 1992. Die Blitzroehre im Staatlichen Museum fuer Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden (Fulgurites in the State Museum for Mineralogy and Geology in Dresden). Mineralien-Magazin Lapis 17(7-8):66-68. (in German)
Thiedig, F. and Hacht, U. von 1978. Ueber Fulgurite-und Berichte ueber Funde von Blitzroehren auf Sylt (Schleswig-Holstein) (Fulgurite and fulgurite deposits on Sylt, Schleswig-Holstein). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Palaeontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 48:33-42. (in German)
van Bastelaer, D.-A. 1883. Sur un fulgurite formé en présence de plusieurs témoins à Gougnies près de Charleroi (On a fulgurite formed in the presence of many witnesses at Gougnies near Charleroi). Bulletins de l'Académie royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique, 3e Série, 6:144-152, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/110000#page/149 (in French)
van Tassel, R. 1958. Unve fulgurite ramifee de Zutendaal Limbourg belge. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la terre, 34(7), 8 pp.
Varrek, R.J., Holle, R.L. and Allsopp, J. 2004. Fulgurites: glass from lightning. The Earth Scientist (National Earth Science Teachers Association) 20:23-26.
Viemeister, P.E. 1961. Petrified lightning. In: The Lightning Book. MIT Press, pp. 138-140. (Note: photos and discussion of fulgurites)
Voigt, J.K.W. 1805. Nachricht von den Blitzröhren (Note on the fulgurites). Magazin für den neuesten Zustand der Naturkunde mit Rücksicht auf die dazugehörigen Hülfswissenschaften herausgegeben von J. H. Voigt 10:491-495. (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Vokes, H.E. 1939. When the earth is electrocuted. Natural History 44(3):158-159, http://hdl.handle.net/2246/6363 (Note: discusses fulgurites)
Walter, M. 2011. An exogenic fulgurite occurrence in Oswego, Oswego County, New York. Rocks and Minerals 86(3):264-270, doi:10.1080/00357529.2010.517134
Webb, R.W. 1968. Lightning strikes twice…or more copper in rock tubes, a desert mystery. Mineral Information Service, a publication of the California Division of Mines and Geology 21(11):159-162. (Note: discusses fulgurites, Mineral Information Service was a precursor to the magazine titled California Geology)
Weightman, R.H. 1934. Lightning branches on the ground. Monthly Weather Review 62(6):200-201, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1934)62<200b:LBOTG>2.0.CO;2 (Note: mentions fulgurites)
Weisburd, S. 1986. Largest melt from lightning strike. Science News (Washington) 130(15):231. (keyword: fulgurite)
West, C.E. 1843. Notice of certain siliceous tubes (Fulgurites) formed in the earth. American Journal of Science and Arts 45:220-222.
Wichmann, A. 1883. Ueber Fulgurite (On fulgurite). Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft 35:849-859, http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/148375#page/869 (in German)
Wicke, W. 1833. Directe Beobachtungen über Entstehung von Blitzröhren (Direct observations of the emergence of lightning tubes). Annalen der Physik 182(1):158-159, doi:10.1002/andp.18591820112 (in German) (keyword: fulgurite)
Williams, D.J. and Johnson, W. 1980. A note on the formation of fulgurites. Geological Magazine 117(3):293-296, doi:10.1017/S001675680003051X
Wimmenauer, W. 2006. Vorkommen und Strukturen von Fulguriten im Schwarzwald (Occurrence and structures of fulgurites in the Black Forest). Der Aufschluss 57(9):325-328. (in German)
Wimmenauer, W. and Himstedt, F. 2012. Dokumentation zum Thema: Fulgurite auf Felsen und Mauerwerk in Südwestdeutschland und weiteren Fundgebieten : Geländebefunde und lichtmikroskopische Untersuchungen (Documentation on the topic: Fulgurite in rock and brick-work in the Black Forest of southwest Germany and further findings in other areas: findings and light-microscope investigations). Universität Freiburg Fakultät für Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften, Bericht (Technical Report), 65 pp. (in German)
Withering, W. 1790. An account of some extraordinary effects of lightning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 80(15):293-295, doi:10.1098/rstl.1790.0019 (Note: mentions melted or fused quartz grains due to lightning strike)
Wright, F.W. Jr. 1998. Florida's fantastic fulgurite find. Weatherwise 51(4):28-31, doi:10.1080/00431672.1998.9926145 (Note: July/Aug edition)
Wright, F.W. Jr. 1999. Florida's fantastic fulgurite find. Rocks and Minerals 74(3):156-159, doi:10.1080/00357529909602534
Yamaguchi, K. 1964. Japanese fulgurite. Chishitsugaku Zasshi (Journal of the Geological Society of Japan) 70(826):384.
Yavuz, N. and Can, M. 1999. Experiments on artificial fulgurites under high voltage electrical discharge. Metall (Isernhagen) 53(11):607-609. (in German?)
Zeitner, J.C. 1982. Fulgurites. The Lapidary Journal 36(April):*-*.



Last updated by J. E. Stout, USDA-ARS on 3 August 2017